For those of you who haven’t memorized the AB 32 scoping plan pie chart that details the sources of greenhouse gas emissions in California by sector, “vehicle miles traveled” (or, as lay folks call it, “driving”) represents the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the state — almost forty percent. We can hope and pray that improvements in fuel content and fuel efficiency will reduce these emissions, but the latest research shows that any future improvements will be overwhelmed by population growth and inefficient land use policies that require longer automobile trips for people to get around.
So what can be done? The answer is what we like to call “sustainable development.” This basically means that we need to build more walkable communities near major transit stops, so residents can walk or bike to most basic services without needing a car, and they can commute by train or rapid bus. A lot of conservatives like to argue that we don’t have more of this development because the market doesn’t want it. The American Dream, after all, is a big house with a backyard in the suburbs. And the fact that we don’t have more compact and walkable communities must be a reflection of that market demand, right?
Wrong. A growing market segment would like to live in a walkable community, with mixed uses and more compact development. Young people, retirees, and married couples without children all represent demographics not served well by the current dominance of single-family housing as a business model. Plus, for a younger generation of families, cities are no longer the scary places that their parents wanted to flee from. Many cities are experiencing a cultural rebirth with vibrancy and cultural life in the downtown cores. The real problem is that local land use policies, and the state and federal policies that support them, make this kind of development illegal. Many homeowners fear new development and persuade their elected officials to prevent it from happening.
To tackle the problem, the environmental law programs at Berkeley and UCLA, as well as the California Attorney General’s Office, convened a gathering of the state’s top sustainable developers back in March. These developers have experience (they call it “war stories”) building exactly the kind of development that California and the country needs to get out of our land use and climate change mess.
Based on the discussion at the gathering, we have drafted a white paper listing the primary roadblocks to this development as well as a comprehensive list of recommended policy solutions for elected leaders at all levels of government. It is titled “Removing the Roadblocks: How to Make Sustainable Development Now.” Our key finding is that local governments need to draft comprehensive neighborhood plans that allow for the compact development and mix of uses necessary for a sustainable and climate-friendly neighborhood. This advance planning, rather than engaging in haphazard project-by-project review, will allow for more diverse and walkable communities. It will also help individual projects that are consistent with these plans to skip much of the painstaking environmental review that will have already been done at the planning level. And without that project-specific review, local opposition will have a harder time attacking worthwhile development.
You can download a copy of the white paper here. And one final note: the gathering in March was the first of four that the two schools and the Attorney General’s Office are hosting this calendar year on climate change and how it affects specific business sectors, all generously funded by the Bank of America Foundation. We’ll release white papers from the other three workshops over the coming months, so stay tuned.